Bareilly

About

Bareilly  is a city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Located on the Ramganga, it is the capital of Bareilly division and the geographical region of Rohilkhand. The city is 252 kilometres (157 mi) north of the state capital, Lucknow, and 250 kilometres (155 mi) east of the national capital, New Delhi. Bareilly is the fourth city in Uttar Pradesh with compressed natural gas (CNG) filling stations (after Lucknow, Kanpur and Agra). It is the seventh-largest metropolis in Uttar Pradesh and the 50th-largest city in India. Bareilly also figured amongst the PM Narendra Modi‘s ambitious 100 Smart City list in India.

The city is also known by the name Nath Nagri (known for the four Shiva temples located in four corners of the region – Dhopeshwar Nath, Madni Nath, Alakha Nath and Trivati Nath), Ala Hazrat,Shah Sharafat Miyan and Khankahe Niyazia (derived the famous Muslim Mausoleum), Zari nagari and historically as Sanjashya (where the Buddha descended from Tushita to earth). The city is a centre for furniture manufacturing and trade in cotton, cereal and sugar. Its status grew with its inclusion in the “counter magnets” list of the National Capital Region (NCR), a list also including Hissar, Patiala, Kota and Gwalior. The city is also known as Bans-Bareilly. Although Bareilly is a production centre for cane (bans) furniture, “Bans Bareilly” is not derived from the bans market; it was named for two princes: Bansaldev and Baraldev, sons of Jagat Singh Katehriya, who founded the city in 1537. Bareilly’s 2011 population was 898,167.

History

According to the epic Mahābhārata, Bareilly region (Panchala) is said to be the birthplace of Draupadi, who was also referred to as ‘Panchali’ (one from the kingdom of Panchāla) by Kṛṣṇā (Lord Krishna). When Yudhishthira becomes the king of Hastinapura at the end of the Mahābhārata, Draupadi becomes his queen. The folklore says that Gautama Buddha had once visited the ancient fortress city of Ahichchhatra in Bareilly. The Jain Tirthankara Parshva is said to have attained Kaivalya at Ahichchhatra.

In the 12th century, the kingdom was under the rule by different clans of Kshatriya Rajputs. With the Islamic Turkic Invasion the region became a part of the Delhi Sultanate before getting absorbed in the emerging Mughal Empire. The foundation of the modern City of Bareilly foundation was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657.

Later the region became the capital of Rohilkhand region before getting handed over to Nawab Vazir of Awadh and then to East India Company (transferred to the British India) and later becoming an integral part of India. The region has, also, acted as a mint for a major part of its history.

From archaeological point of view the district of Bareilly is very rich. The extensive remains of Ahichchhatra, the Capital town of Northern Panchala have been discovered near Ramnagar village of Aonla Tehsil in the district. It was during the first excavations at Ahichchhatra (1940–44) that the painted grey ware, associated with the advent of the Aryans in the Ganges–Yamuna Valley, was recognised for the first time in the earliest levels of the site. Nearly five thousand coins belonging to periods earlier than that of Guptas have been yielded from Ahichchhatra. It has also been one of the richest sites in India from the point of view of the total yield of terracotta. Some of the masterpieces of Indian terracotta art are from Ahichchhatra. In fact the classification made of the terracotta human figurines from Ahichchhatra on grounds of style and to some extent stratigraphy became a model for determining the stratigraphy of subsequent excavations at other sites in the Ganges Valley. On the basis of the existing material, the archaeology of the region helps us to get an idea of the cultural sequence from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC up to the 11th century AD. Some ancient mounds in the district have also been discovered by the Deptt. of Ancient History and culture, Rohilkhand University, at Tihar-Khera (Fatehganj West), Pachaumi, Rahtuia, Kadarganj and Sainthal.

Founding

Bareilly was founded in 1537 by Basdeo, a Katehriya Rajput. The city was first mentioned by the historian Budayuni, who wrote that Husain Quli Khan was appointed the governor of “Bareilly and Sambhal” in 1568. The divisions and revenue of the district “being fixed by Todar Mal” were recorded by Abul Fazl in 1596. The foundation of the modern city of Bareilly was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657. In 1658, Bareilly became the headquarters of the province of Budaun.

The Mughal policy of encouraging Afghan settlements to control the Katehriyas succeeded if the central government was strong. After Aurangzeb‘s death, the Afghans (who had become local potentates) began to seize and occupy neighbouring villages.

After the fall of the Mughal Empire, many Pathans migrated from Rohilkhand. Bareilly (like other cities in Uttar Pradesh) experienced economic stagnation and poverty, leading to the migration of Rohilla Muslim Pathans to Suriname and Guyana as indentured labour.

British East India Company

Under Barech at the 1761 Third Battle of Panipat, Rohilkhand blocked the expansion of the Maratha Empire into northern India. In 1772 it was invaded by the Marathas, repulsing the invasion with the aid of the Nawab of Awadh. After the war, Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula demanded payment for the nawabs’ help from Barech. When his demand was refused, the nawab joined the British (under Governor Warren Hastings and his Commander-in-Chief, Alexander Champion) to invade Rohilkhand. The combined forces of Daula and the Company defeated Barech (who was killed in battle at Miranpur Katra, ending Rohilla rule) in 1774.

Rohilkhand was handed over to Daula, and from 1774 to 1800 the province was ruled by the Nawab of Awadh. By 1801, subsidies due under the treaties to support a British force had fallen into arrears. To pay the debt, Nawab Saadat Ali Khan surrendered Rohilkhand to the East India Company in a treaty signed on 10 November 1801.

During the reign of Shah Alam II, Bareilly was the headquarters of Rohilla Sardar Hafiz Rehmat Khan and many coins were minted. The city was later in the possession of Awadh Nawab Asaf-ud-Daulah, and his coins had Bareilly, Bareilly Aasfabad and the Bareilly kite and fish as identification marks. Coins were then minted by the East India Company.

Modern period

After the Rohilla War, the change in the power structure increased discontent throughout the district. Increased taxation from 1812 to 1814 increased resentment of the British: “Business stood still, shops were shut and multitudes assembled near the courthouse to petition for the abolition of the tax.” The Magistrate Dembleton, already unpopular, ordered the assessment to be made by a Kotwal. A skirmish between rebels and the sepoys (under Captain Cunningham) cost 300–400 lives. In 1818, Glyn was posted as Acting Judge and Magistrate of Bareilly and the Joint Magistrate of Bulundshahr.

Glyn asked Ghulam Yahya to write an account of “craftsmen, the names of tools of manufacture and production and their dress and manners”. The most popular trades in and around Bareilly during the 1820s were manufacturing glass, jewellery, glass and lac bangles and gold and silver thread, crimping, bean drying, wire drawing, charpoy weaving, keeping a grocer’s shop and selling kebabs.

Rebellion of 1857

Bareilly was a centre of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The rebellion began as a mutiny of native soldiers (sepoys), employed by the British East India Company‘s army, against race- and religion-based injustices and inequities on 10 May 1857 in Meerut. It expanded into other mutinies and civilian rebellions, primarily in the major north-central Indian river valleys; local episodes extended northwest to Peshawar (on the northwest frontier with Afghanistan) and southeast (beyond Delhi). There were riots in many parts of Uttar Pradesh, and Muslims in Bareilly, Bijnor and Moradabad called for the revival of a Muslim kingdom.

The Rohillas actively opposed the British, but were disarmed.[15] Khan Bahadur Khan Rohilla, grandson of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, formed his own government in Bareilly in 1857 and a widespread popular revolt in Awadh, Bundelkhand and Rohilkhand took place. In 1857, Khan Bhadur Khan issued silver coins from Bareilly as an independent ruler. When the rebellion failed, Bareilly was subjugated. Khan Bahadur Khan was sentenced to death, and hanged in the police station on 24 February 1860.

Independence

Bareilly Central Jail housed a number of political prisoners during the British Raj, including Yashpal (who married while imprisoned on 7 August 1936 was the first such ceremony in an Indian jail). The rules were changed, preventing future prison marriages.

Geography

Bareilly is in northern India, at 28°10′N 78°23′E. On its east are Pilibhit and Shahjahanpur, Rampur on the west, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand) to the north and Badaun to the south. The city is level and well-watered, sloping towards the south. Its soil is fertile, with groves of trees. A rain forest in the north, known as the tarai, contains tigers, bears, deer and wild pigs. The river Sarda (or Gogra) forms the eastern boundary and is the principal waterway. The Ramganga receives most of the drainage from the Kumaon mountains, and the Deoha also receives many small streams. The Gomati (or Gumti) is also nearby.

Map

How to Get There

Roads

The street system in Bareilly is traditional, with most roads oriented towards different cities. The city centre is the intersection of Nainital Road and Bada Bazaar–Shahamat Ganj Road at a street known as Kutubkhana. It is a congested street, and the entry of cars or heavy vehicles is prohibited during the day. The Ayyub Khan Choraha–Chaupla and Chowki Chauraha–Chaupla Roads run from Lucknow Road to Delhi Road National Highway 24. Government of Uttar Pradesh has proposed 200 km six lane expressway from Faridpur near Bareilly to Pariyar in Unnao district (near Bithoor) to connect Bareilly with Kanpur and reduce distance between both cities from 10 hours to 3 hours. Nainital Road (including the Pilibhit By-pass Road) and Badaun Road begain at Kutubkhana. Heavy traffic is allowed on these roads only from Koharapeer Sabji-Mandi and Chaupla Crossroads.

Arterial streets include:

  • Stadium Road (connecting Pilibhit Road (D.D. Puram) to the ShyamGanj crossroad)
  • Macnair Road (connecting Nainital Road to Stadium Road)
  • Pilibhit By-pass Road, connecting Pilibhit Road to Lucknow Road (National Highway 24)
  • SH-33 Bareilly to Mathura via Subhash Nagar & ( Vishwanathpuram ), Budaun and Kasganj
  • Mini By-Pass, connecting Delhi Road (National Highway 24) to Nanital Road
  • Shahamat Ganj–Ayyub Khan Choraha–Chaupla–Quila–C.B. Ganj Road (National Highway 24)
  • Shahamat Ganj–Bareilly Cantt–Chowki Chauraha–Chaupla Road
  • I.V.R.I. Road (connecting Nainital Road to Pilibhit Road)
  • Civil Lines Road
  • Highway connecting Delhi to Lucknow four lane via Bareilly is a 29 km long highway which bypasses the city crowd of Bareilly, ensuring the smooth running of local traffic.

The inter-city satellite bus stand is just outside the city, at the intersection of National Highway 24 and the Pilibhit By-pass Road. The old bus stand in Civil Lines still well-used by state-owned buses to Delhi.

Improvements

As part of the expansion of National Highway 24 (connecting Lucknow to New Delhi via Shahjahanpur, Bareilly, Rampur, Moradabad and Ghaziabad) to four lanes, two contracts were awarded on a Design, Build, Finance, Operate and Transfer (DBFOT) basis for the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). Bareilly Ring Road (Bypass) provides an excellent platform for setting up of industries, MNCs, residential townships, shopping malls, school and colleges, hospitals, airport, railways, etc.

Rail

Bareilly has been connected to the rest of India by rail since the 19th century, and a 1909 map shows that Bareilly was a railway junction during the early 20th century. Six rail lines intersect in the city. In 1890 the Bengal and North Western Railway leased the Tirhoot State Railway to increase the latter’s revenue, and the Lucknow-Sitapur-Seramow Provincial State Railway merged with the Bareilly-Pilibheet Provincial State Railway to form the Lucknow-Bareilly Railway on 1 January 1891. The Lucknow-Bareilly Railway was owned by the Government of India, and operated by the Rohilkund and Kumaon Railway.

The Oudh and Tirhut Railway was formed on 1 January 1943 by the merger of the Bengal and North Western Railway, the Tirhut Railway (BNW operated), the Mashrak-Thawe Extension Railway (BNW operated), the Rohilkund and Kumaon Railway and the Lucknow-Bareilly Railway (R&K operated). The Oudh and Tirhut Railway was later renamed the Oudh Tirhut Railway; it merged with the Assam Railway and the Kanpur-Achnera section of the Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway to form North Eastern Railway (headquartered in Gorakhpur, with a divisional headquarters in Izzatnagar), one of the 16 zones of the Indian Railways.

Six railway stations serve the city:

Bareilly is on the Moradabad-Lucknow route. Trains from the north (including Jammu Tawi and Amritsar) and Delhi running east and northeast (to Gorakhpur, Barauni, Howrah, Guwahati and Dibrugarh) pass through Bareilly, and the city is also on the route from Uttarakhand to Kasganj and Mathura. Many trains to railway stations in Uttarakhand pass through Bareilly.

Air

The Indian Air Force has a base at Izzatnagar, on the outskirts of Bareilly. Although it is not open to civilian aviation (except for high government officials), there are plans for a civilian terminal adjacent to the runway.

Sightseeing

Bareilly is home to many Hindu temples. Four Nath (Shiva) temples are situated on the city’s four corners: the Alakha Nath, Trivati Nath, Madhi Nath and Dhopeshwar Nath temples. So Bareilly are called Nath Nagri.

Best Time to Visit

Climate

Climate data for Bareilly
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21.6
(70.9)
24.0
(75.2)
30.6
(87.1)
36.8
(98.2)
39.9
(103.8)
38.6
(101.5)
33.9
(93)
32.6
(90.7)
33.0
(91.4)
32.3
(90.1)
28.0
(82.4)
23.2
(73.8)
31.21
(88.18)
Average low °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
10.4
(50.7)
15.2
(59.4)
20.9
(69.6)
25.1
(77.2)
27.0
(80.6)
26.1
(79)
25.8
(78.4)
24.4
(75.9)
19.3
(66.7)
12.7
(54.9)
9.3
(48.7)
18.71
(65.67)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 22.9
(0.902)
25.3
(0.996)
14.5
(0.571)
8.9
(0.35)
19.3
(0.76)
106.4
(4.189)
307.0
(12.087)
290.9
(11.453)
186.1
(7.327)
44.9
(1.768)
3.9
(0.154)
9.7
(0.382)
1,039.8
(40.939)
Source: India Meteorological Department (1901–2000)

Environment

Bareilly is on the Ganges plain, with fertile alluvial soil; however, the lower plain is flood-prone. The city is on the Ramganga, with seven other rivers passing through the district. The lower Himalayas are 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of the river.

Buy

  • Ravindra kumar pandey, Anand aashram naktia bareilly uttar prdesh, 9005857152,

Eat

 

  • momos, rajendra nagar (near sheel hospital). 
  • anand’s chicken soup, (near sheel hospital).

 

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